An interesting technique that finds extensive use in RF/MW ESD circuits and complex matching circuits is the concept of resonating out reactances. Taking the case of the ESD circuit we find that in the most usual case RF/MW ESD circuits ( as other ESD circuits do) use some form of diodes to protect sensitive inputs on an IC. This of course leads to a parasitic capacitance which causes loading and mismatches. In order to eliminate the effect of this capacitance, at a single frequency an inductor can be used in parallel with the parasitic capacitance. The value of the inductor is chosen to resonate with the parasitic capacitor and therefore at the resonant frequency the pair becomes invisible leaving only the resistive part to be matched or considered. This is a simple technique which finds wide application in a number of critical circuits. Obviously the limitation is the single frequency characteristic. However, with some subtle manipulations it can also be used in wider bandwidth applications.
This is a very interesting specification for which no clear definition seems to exist. Note definition 1.0: Spurious rejection is the ratio of a particular out of band frequency signal level required to produce a specified output to the desired signal level to produce the same output. Definition 2.0: ” All superheterodyne receivers have a potential for responding to frequencies other than the desired frequency channel. This needs to be minimized by designing in spurious response rejection by proper choice of the IF frequency and use of RF filters. 70 to 100 dB is achieveable in practical receivers.” Definition 3.0: Ratio of desired signal to the total of all spurious signals at an offset of channel spacing in dB. What are these spurious responses being considered? A sample of these signals is described below:
(1) Image frequency/ frequencies.
(2) Half – IF.
(3) Straight IF pickup.
(4) High order spurs result from combinations of harmonics ( m,n) which result in spurious responses so close to the desired frequency response that they cannot be filtered out.
(5) A whole family of spurious responses of type ( 1 x n) is the n x LO spurs which can be troublesome if the RF front end has return responses or re-resonances.
(6) Second image in dual conversion receivers.
(7) Spurious signals present on the LO signal itself.
(8) Transmitted signal in half duplex radios assuming the role of a LO.
These responses are difficult to measure because of signal generator wideband noise.
Nevertheless this is a key receiver specification, and needs to be understood and above all, used and specified clearly.
For maximum transfer of power from a source to a load, the source and load impedances must be conjugate matched. A number of techniques to do this have been developed. This post looks at two fairly simple and very popular ones. The L – section match and the cascade transmission line match. Simple analytical techniques are used to do this and described in the paper. The calculations can be done with a simple calculator. In order to access the detailed description, interested readers are directed to our website at www.signalpro.biz. Follow the links in the website to engineering pages>engineer’s corner and then select the paper from the list on the page.