Noise cancellation in systems with low amplitude input signals embedded in large noise levels is always a problem. Few techniques are available to extract these low level signals from noise but tend to be expensive in many ways. Lock-in amplifiers can be used to measure very small AC signals(a few nanovolts).
The basic technique used by lock in amplifiers is known as phase-sensitive detection to single out the component of the signal at a particular reference frequency and phase. i.e. it is a very narrow band filter equivalent and noise signals are attenuated. For example. The signal is a 10 nV sine wave at 10 kHz. Amplification is used to bring the signal above the noise. A good low-noise amplifier will have about 5 nV/√Hz of input noise. If the amplifier bandwidth is 100 kHz and the gain is 1000, the output will be 10 µV of signal (10 nV × 1000) and the noise will be 1.6mv. This means it will be very difficult if not impossible to measure the signal of interest.
If the amplifier is followed by a narrow band filter, with a Q=100 centered at 10 kHz, any signal in a 100 Hz bandwidth will be detected (10kHz/Q). The noise in the filter pass band will be 50 µV (5 nV/√Hz ×√100 Hz × 1000), and the signal will still be 10 µV. However, the output noise is still much larger than the signal, and a measurement can not be made.
If the amplifier is followed by a phase-sensitive detector, then the PSD can detect with an extremely narrow bandwidth of 0.01 Hz! In this case the noise in the detection bandwidth drops to 0.5 µV (5 nV/√Hz ×√.01 Hz × 1000), but the signal stays at 10 µV. The S/N is now 20, and the signal can be measured.
Creative circuit design can be used to measure small signals in other parts of the signal spectrum also. The interested reader is referred to Signal Processing Group Inc ( website http://www.signalpro.biz) for more information. Please contact the SPG techteam through the “contact” menu item if needed.
Interestingly enough a monolithic version of the lock in amplifier is available with a 100dB range at a reasonable cost.
FPGA Design and development service
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A wideand RF detector ( 40 Mhz to 3 Ghz) -75 dBm to 5 dBm input
Linear detector performance
A wideband linear RF detector
Price for one unit: $25.00. Lead time for delivery 3 days. 30 Day return policy. Pricing for 100 units or more: $20.00 per unit. Please contact Signal Processing Group Inc. for details for purchase from Signal Processing Group Inc. Email: email@example.com 24/7
Wideband RF detector perforamce , more details
Contact Signal Processing Group Inc.
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2 stage 35 dB gain RF amplifier. Front of the module
Full range frequency response
2 stage amplifier deta
Please see details at http://www.signalpro.biz/2rf_amplifier_details.htm Delivery lead time is 3 days. Return within 30 days for a full refund. Price is $15.00 for one unit and $10.00 per unit in volumes of 100. For higher volumes than 100 please contact Signal Processing group Inc.
miniature LNA module
Mni LNA performance
Delivery lead time is 3 days. Return within 30 days for a full refund. Price is $15.00 for one unit and $12.00 per unit in volumes of 100. For higher volumes than 100 please contact Signal Processing Group Inc. at email: email@example.com or call 602-626-0272 for fastest service.
A high frequency divider from 500 Mhz to % Ghz+
The input interface.
The frequency divider has a differential analog interface. The following parameters apply:
The minimum frequency that can be input is 500 Mhz and the maximum frequency is 6.0 Ghz.
The RF input level is 5 dBm to – 5 dBm. For lower frequencies make sure that the slew rate is
greater than 560 V/us. The input is biased by two 500 Ohm resistors connected to a 1.6V DC bias.
Therefore AC coupling is used at the input. These are two 100pF capacitors.
The output interface.
The output is single ended. The output driver is capable of sourcing and sinking 24 mA. The
equivalent output impedance is 50 Ohm. To avoid reflections it is recommended that the divider
work into a 50 Ohm load.
The inputs are applied to the input SMA I/O. The product will work with both a differential input as
well as a single ended input. However, a differential input works best. The division ratio is applied
to the N1 and N2 control inputs as follows:
N2 N1 Division ratio
0 0 8
0 1 16
1 0 32
1 1 64
The logic levels are:
Logic level Voltage
1 1.4V minimum
0 0.6V maximum
The supply voltage interface.
The operating supply voltage is 3.3V typical. The quiescent (DC) operating supply current is 2 mA.
A high frequency divider 500 Mhz to 5 Ghz+
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SPDT DC to 3 Ghz RF switch
DC to 3 Ghz RF SPDT switch
RF Switch typical features
Supply voltage = Vcc = 0/+5 Vdc
Operatng temperature = TA = -50° C to 125 Deg C
Operating impedance = 50 Ohm
Input power for 1 dB
compression ( 5.0V system) = 37 dBm ( f = 0.5 to 3 Ghz)
Input third order Intercept = 64 dBm ( 0 to 5.0V system, f = 0.5 to 3 Ghz)
Operating frequency range = DC to 3 Ghz.
Insertion loss DC to 3 Ghz = 0.8 dB
Isolation DC to 3 Ghz = 14 dB minimum
Return loss DC to 3 Ghz = 20 dB
50% contl to 10/90 %
( ON/OFF) = 120 ns
A single stage RF amplifier as a gain block
A single stage RF amplifier summary specifications
Gain, Operating: 19.5 dB
Operating frequency range: 1.0 – 2700 Mhz
OIP3: (Pout = 19.0 dBm), -8.5 dBm
P1dB: 4.6 dBm
N.F: 4.2 dB
Supply voltage Operating: 3.3 – 5.5 Volts
Price: single unit $7.50, 100 units : $5:50.
Free delivery, shipping lead time 2 days.
30 day return policy, buyer ships.
Supply current Supply = 5.0V, 23.0 mA
Embedded design and development
Signal Processing Group Inc. is offering embedded design and development using Microchip processors. Please contact us on email@example.com for more information