SPICE type CAD tools usually specify ideal transmission lines using the TD parameter. TD is the associated time delay of a signal transiting through a section of an ideal transmission line. However, sometimes it is easier to think in terms of physical length of the T-line. A calculator that does this is available from Signal Processing Group at the “calculators” menu item. Please visit that as well as a list of other calculators ( slanted towards RF/analog and microwave/mmWave design ) at the “calculators” menu item

# Author Archives: Ain

# Calculate the reactance of an inductor

Calculating the reactance of an inductance is simple but fraught with reiterations. Signal Processing Group has released a calculator that does this given the inductance value and the frequency of operation. This calculator can be found in the SPG website under the “calculators” menu.

# A calculator for the reactance of a capacitor, given the capacitor value and the frequency.

This calculation is a very common calculation in the design of many circuits, integrated and otherwise. Its simple to do it can tedious because of human error. This calculator that is presented by Signal Processing Group simplifies the calculation and allows the user to quickly get the result. Look it up under the calculators menu on the SPG website. https://www.signalpro.biz/calculators/calculators1.html.

# A GM-C filter design in CMOS technology

GM-C filters can be very useful when designing in fine line MOS or in a CMOS or BiCMOS technology. The capacitor sizes can be made small and thus save chip area. They can be easier to test. If the prototype filter is designed with lumped L and C components then these can be replaced with solid state blocks such as integrators. GM – C theory is fairly well understood so the risk in design is relatively low. SPG presents a report on a GM-C bandpass filter we did for interested readers ( engineers, students and Instructors) with an earnest hope that it will be useful. Please visit the SPG website and read or download the report.

# Calculate the resistor parameters given sheet resistance and width of the resistor in semiconductor technology

Calculating the resistor parameters ( length, width resistance etc.) is a common task done by IC designers when a chip is designed. This post introduces a simple Javascript calculator that calculates the length of a resistor, given the sheet resistance of the technology, the required resistance and the width of the design rule for resistors. This calculator provides a starting point quickly to do the calculation. It is the first order value of the resistance. Please download the calculator from the SPG website to use it.

# Horn antenna

This post describes a methodology for the design of a pyramidal horn antenna. Following posts build on it and provide more details. A pyramidal horn is a popular antenna that has very little loss and is used commonly in antenna systems. The structure of the pyramidal horn is shown in FIGURE 1.0 below.

The design of a horn like this begins with a specification. Usually the following parameters are given:

Gain (in dBi)

a (inches or cm) (usually the horn is fed from a waveguide)

b (inches or cm) (usually the horn is fed from a waveguide)

frequency (Hz)

The problem is to find A and B, and other dimensions shown below. Once we have these dimensions, we can find other parameters of the antenna.

The usual procedure is to solve an equation to get a *key parameter*
using the given specifications. This methodology will be outlined in this post
and access to the equation solver will be provided. Subsequent posts will add
more detail so that an engineer will be able to get a first cut design of the
horn and fabricate it.

After the required key value is obtained through solving the equation the following steps are used to find the Horn parameters.

Use

λ is the wavelength of the signal in cm. l_{e} is found from the
solution of the equation.

Calculate B from this equation.

From B, λ, l_{e} and G calculate A. The
equation to be used is:

G = (½)(4π/λ^{2})(AB)

Now we have A and B.

l_{h} is found from the following equation:

A = sqrt(3λl_{h})

Calculate R_{H} and R_{E }from the following equation:

R_{E }= (B -b)(sqrt[(l_{e}/B)^{2 }– ¼)])

Since we are dealing with a pyramidal horn R_{E }=R_{H}

Use the following equation for R1:

l_{h}^{2 }= R1^{2 }+ (A/2)^{2}

Use the following equation to calculate R2:

l_{e}^{2 }=
R2^{2 }+ (B/2)^{2}

The equation to be solved is: |

The quantity σ has to be solved for. σ =le/λ . This equation is best solved numerically with a starting value of σ = G/2π√6. The Python program that was written to do this is available on request at spg@signalpro.biz or spg327@gmail.com Ref: This blog is partially based on “Antenna Theory and Design, by Warren L. Stutzman and Gary A. Thiele. The book was published by John Wiley and Sons, 1981. Ref: The Python program was written by Anuj Tripathi, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. |

# Calculate the number of turns required for a given value of an inductor using a toroid.

Recently we published a calculator that provides the value of an inductor wound on a toroid given the number of turns of wire and other parameters.

A reverse calculator is provided now by SPG that calculates the number of turns needed to generate a given value of an inductor wound on a toroid. Please visit the SPG website and check under the “complementary” menu.

# Inductance calculation for a toroidal inductor

The inductance of a toroidal inductor can be calculated using the following simple expression: L = AL*n*n/1000 uH. AL is a constant provided by the manufacturer of the toroid and n is the number of turns of wire.. Please visit the SPG website for more technical articles and items of interest.

# Calculate resistance of a semiconductor layer

**A simple Javascript calculator for resistance of semiconductor layers.**

The resistance of a resistive layer on an ASIC/IC is usually given (for hand calculations ) by taking the ratio of the length of the layer and its width and multiplying by its sheet resistance, (L/W)RS. Where L is the length, W is the width and RS is the sheet resistance. (Not every resistor can be calculated this way. Odd shapes are not amenable to this formula.) A simple javascript was generated at SPG that can be modified as needed to do this. Please visit the Signal Processing Group website to download the calculator free of cost. The calculator may be found under the “calculators” menu item.

# Colpitt’s oscillator frequency calculator

A recent post presented the Colpitt’s oscillator starting point with a schematic and simulation results. In addition, it also provided a link to the recent book by Ain Rehman on this oscillator available from Amazon that contains design information and an exhaustive list of references for further study for interested readers. This post suggests downloading the Colpitt’s oscillator frequency calculator from the SPG website. It provides a good starting point and sanity check on the design of a Colpitt’s oscillator for the user. Please visit the SPG website and look under the ” Complementary” menu item.