Simple baluns ( balanced-unbalanced) at lower frequencies use flux coupled transformers.They are generally limited to lower frequencies below 1 GHz. The reason is that at high frequencies the dipoles in the magnetic core cannot switch quickly enough, causing loss in the balun’s coupling between windings.
Parasitic capacitance between the windings leads to high frequency signals that pass directly to ground without coupling through the metallic core. Magnetic cores also have a large loss tangent. This causes high signal losses at microwave operation.
As a result of these effects, capacitance coupled transmission line baluns were invented. A transmission line balun is a set of coupled transmission lines with one end grounded. This type of coupling induces equal and opposite signals in both lines.
As a result of using a transmission line to connect to ground, the transmission line allows differential operation. Common forms of transmission line baluns include the 1:4 impedance ratio Ruthroff balun and 1:4 Guanella balun.
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